Densely branched, woody, evergreen perennial shrub <6m tall. Rigid spines form a box-like arrangement. Hairless, almost stalkless leaves -narrow, oblong & <40mm long; occur alternately on young shoots but clustered on mature stems. White - pale mauve flowers (Jul-Mar) have slender corolla tube. Poisonous orange-red berries.
Aggressive coloniser of sand dunes, gravel, coastal shrublands, pasture, waste places, roadsides. Used as stock-proof hedging plant in some areas.
Birds mainly disperse seeds.
Invades sand dunes, often the only woody plant in this environment. Dominates native vegetation.
Prefers open sites so revegetate following clearance.
1. Hand pull seedlings, winch out larger plants.
2. Cut & stump paint (200ml glyphosate/1L or 5g metsulfuron/1L).
3. Spray, Nov - Apr, (100ml glyphosate/10L (do not use penetrant)).
Preferably treat coastal sites after rain to lessen effect of salt on herbicide. Ensure total coverage.
Caution: when using any herbicide or pesticide PLEASE READ THE LABEL THOROUGHLY to ensure that all instructions and safety requirements are followed.