Evergreen or semi-evergreen erect shrub or subshrub <1.5m high. Reddish, ridged stems. Aromatic leaves oval, usually opposite, & greenish often with a red blush. Yellow flowers (Nov-Feb) with numerous stamens clustered on end of branches. Round, green, fruit ripen to red & then black.
Rocky & open streams, coastal areas, roadsides, banks, disturbed areas, unintensively farmed land. Prefers wetter, cooler areas. Tolerates light shade.
Birds, wind, soils disturbance & water.
Forms extensive patches. Dense cover of branches & rotting leaves smothers existing low growing plants & seriously inhibits regeneration.
Difficult to kill, herbicide timing important. In regenerating tall forest, may be left to natural succession. Replant bared sites densely to minimise seedlings.
1. Hand pull small plants.
2. Cut and stump paint spring - summer (5g metsulfuron/L).
3. Slash larger plants & spray regrowth during spring & autumn (100ml glyphosate +20ml penetrant/10L or 5g metsulfuron+10ml penetrant/10L).
4. Foliar spray during spring (60ml Tordon BK + 10ml penetrant/10L).
Caution: when using any herbicide or pesticide PLEASE READ THE LABEL THOROUGHLY to ensure that all instructions and safety requirements are followed.