Also known as:
South Africa

General description

Hardy, bushy, much-branched shrub <2m tall. Young stems woolly but soon become smooth. Leaves smooth, leathery, oval to elliptical & irregularly serrate. Bright yellow, daisy-like flowers (Sept-Feb). Round, green drupes (stone fruit) with hard protective cover ( ‘boneseed’), ripening to black.

Well-drained dry soils, coastal cliffs, scrubland, roadsides, consolidated sand dunes, plantations, quarries. Tolerant of poor soils.

Prolific seeds spread along coastlines & roadsides by soil disturbance. Fruit also eaten by possums. Extensive seed bank viability (10+ years). Fire assists seed germination.

Competes with native vegetation particularly in coastal environments. Changes environments of high light to heavy shade.

Site management

Begin control at top of site, work along contours to prevent erosion & minimise reinfestation from above. Easiest during spring flowering when visible. This also prevents seed being dispersed from plants cut later in the season. Follow up 6-monthly.

Recommended approaches

1. Hand pull all but the largest plants before seeding.
2. Cut larger plants & stump paint (100ml glyphosate /1L or 1g metsulfuron/1L or Vigilant gel).
3. Spray (100ml glyphosate+20ml penetrant/10L or 5g metsulfuron + 20ml penetrant/10L). Follow up for seedlings required.
4. Spray seedlings (if numerous) 5ml clopyralid/1L (will leave grass cover). Do not use clopyralid in home gardens.

Caution: when using any herbicide or pesticide PLEASE READ THE LABEL THOROUGHLY to ensure that all instructions and safety requirements are followed.

Similar species

Baccharis halimifolia

Flowers are small, cream or white and appear between March and May.

Search tags

RPMS status

Surveillance - Whole Region
National Pest Plant Accord species - nationwide
boneseed - Main species image